Kutiyottam employs twenty four Ragas
also called Svaras. Ragas are not rendered according to rhythm as in songs but
are sung as verses. Each Rasa has a specific Raga associated with it. Given
below are examples.
Indalam : for noble characters
Cetipancamam : for lower characters
Virapancamam : for extremely heroic occasions
Bhinnapancamam : for highly elated occasions
Muralindalam : for Sri Rama’s love
Antari : the Raga used by the storyteller
and not used by the character.
Swalpantari : for Varunan
Veladhuli : for fear, anxiety andcalling from a distance.
Sri Kamaram : for a sudden spurt of emotion
Artan : for arngara and rati
Paurali : for Srirama’s love-lorn state
Mudden : Rakshasa’a love
Kaisiki : for Hasya and Bibhatsa
Tarkan : for Krodha and Raudra
Viratarkan : for Vira rasa
Duhkhagandhari : for Soka and Karuna
Charrantari : for Bharatavzakya and for conveying
the death of a cruel character
Danam : Adbhuta (wonder), Bhayanaka (fearsome)
Tondu : Bhakthi (devotion), Santa
Puraniru : for description of rain, morning….
Srikanti : used at the end of a drama
Ragas and their styles or redition have no classical backing. Ragas are not
sung. Tambura and harmonium that keep up the sruti are not employed. The ragas may be rendered differently by the
different actors. Kutiyottam places a low premium for the learning of classical
music in its training routines.
one considers these facts there might emerge the conclusion that traditions
of classical music have no significance in Kutiyattam. Was the situation similar
in the older days? The names of certain Ragas give rise to this suspicion. Indala
and Puraniru are two ragas that have been mentioned which were used in Kathakali
earlier in the form of songs. Did Kutiyattam also use it similarly? The name
of certain ragas has been mentioned that stress on some of the scaled in the
heptatonic scale. For example, Cetipancamam, Virapancamam, Bhinnapancamem etc.
We are not sure whether these ragas have any relation with the Pancamasvara.
It has to be investigated whether Kutiyattam has any realations
with classical music traditions. There is an opinion that the recital of the
slokas (verses) resembles the chanting of Vedas, this opinion again being doubted
by many scholars, since the chanting of Vedas does not involve adherence to
specific Ragas. Whatever be the conclusions drawn, it can be said that the Ragas
in Kutiyattam place an emphasis on the emotive effect rather thatn the mode
Talas (Time Measurers)